Introducing CANADA


Canadian dollar (CAD)



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02:42 PM

Canada, a country of great distances and abundant natural resources, gained independence from the British crown in 1867 but kept ties to it. With the passage of the Canada Act in 1982, Canada confirmed its constitutional independence from the UK and obtained legislative independence from the UK in 1931. The country's economic and technical advancements have kept pace with those of the US, it’s neighbor to the south across the longest international border in the world. In addition to addressing the specific problems of Quebec, which is predominately francophone, Canada has political obstacles to meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, education, social services, and economic competitiveness. Canada also wants to expand its array of energy sources while upholding its environmental commitment.

Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US

total: 9,984,670 sq km land: 9,093,507 sq km water: 891,163 sq km

varies from temperate in the south to subarctic and arctic in north

38,232,593 (2022 est.)

In terms of its manufacturing structure, market-oriented economic system, and high level of life, Canada is similar to the US. The country's economy has changed from one that was predominantly rural and rural-based after World War II to one that is primarily industrial and urban-based due to the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors. Canada has a sizable oil and gas industry, with Alberta in the western provinces producing the majority of the country's crude oil. Behind Saudi Arabia and Venezuela, Canada is currently the third-largest oil producer in the world, and it also has the third-largest proven oil reserves. The 1989 Canada-US Free Trade Agreement and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement considerably increased trade and economic cooperation between the US and Canada (which also includes Mexico). With over $680 billion in trade in goods and services in 2017, Canada and the US have the largest bilateral trade and investment partnership in the world, and more than $800 billion in equities for two-way investments. Each year, the US receives more than three-fourths of the goods that Canada exports. Canada is a major source of uranium imports into the US and is the largest foreign supplier of energy to the US, including oil, natural gas, and electric power. Canada experienced strong economic development from 1993 to 2007 thanks to its wealth of natural resources, highly skilled labor force, and contemporary capital stock. The worldwide economic crisis of 2007–08 caused a severe recession in Canada by the end of 2008, and after 12 years of surpluses, Ottawa reported its first fiscal deficit in 2009. Due to the financial sector's history of conservative lending standards and high capitalization, Canada's main banks emerged from the global financial crisis of 2008–2009 among the strongest in the world. In 2017, the Canadian economy grew strongly, by 3%, but most economists predict that in 2018, growth would be less robust, closer to 2%. 


White 87.2%, Black/African/Caribbean/black British 3%, Asian/Asian British: Indian 2.3%, Asian/Asian British: Pakistani 1.9%, mixed 2%, other 3.7% (2011 est.)

5.67% (2019 est.) 5.83% (2018 est.) country comparison to the world: 92

English (official) 58.7%, French (official) 22%, Punjabi 1.4%, Italian 1.3%, Spanish 1.3%, German 1.3%, Cantonese 1.2%, Tagalog 1.2%, Arabic 1.1%, other 10.5% (2011 est.)

Catholic 39% (includes Roman Catholic 38.8%, other Catholic .2%), Protestant 20.3% (includes United Church 6.1%, Anglican 5%, Baptist 1.9%, Lutheran 1.5%, Pentecostal 1.5%, Presbyterian 1.4%, other Protestant 2.9%), Orthodox 1.6%, other Christian 6.3%, Muslim 3.2%, Hindu 1.5%, Sikh 1.4%, Buddhist 1.1%, Jewish 1%, other 0.6%, none 23.9% (2011 est.)

0-14 years: 15.99% (male 3,094,008/female 2,931,953) 15-24 years: 11.14% (male 2,167,013/female 2,032,064) 25-54 years: 39.81% (male 7,527,554/female 7,478,737) 55-64 years: 14.08% (male 2,624,474/female 2,682,858) 65 years and over: 18.98% (2020 est.) (male 3,274,298/female 3,881,126)

continuous permafrost in the north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains

$1,742,790,000,000 (2020 est.) $1,842,330,000,000 (2019 est.) $1,808,660,000,000 (2018 est.) note: data are in 2017 dollars country comparison to the world: 15

1.66% (2019 est.) 2.02% (2018 est.) 3.17% (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 148

$45,900 (2020 est.) $49,000 (2019 est.) $48,800 (2018 est.) note: data are in 2017 dollars country comparison to the world: 34

$1,741,865,000,000 (2019 est.)

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